American Concrete Institute (ACI) has published the Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete which is the guide for Reinforced concrete structure while designing the structure. It provides the background of material and rationale for the code provision.
ACI has revised the guide after every 3 years. ACI 318-19 is the latest version. Originally it is made in US but many other countries has followed this document. It has two parts, both are incorporated in this document:
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
Commentary on Building Code Requirements on Structural Concrete
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The basic principles of residential building are discussed bellow:
Floor Space Index (F.S.I): The F.S.I is the ratio of the total built-up area including walls to the area of land on which the building is to be constructed. It is the measured to check the density of population. The margin on road side shall be 4.5 m.
Plinth Height: The plinth height shall be 450 mm above plot level or road level whichever is higher and also depends upon topography of the locality.
D.P.C: It should be 40 mm thick of cement Concrete (1:2:4) with two coats of hot bitumen covered it.
Height of Roof: The height of roof shall be 2.7 to 3 m maximum and for bathroom it shall be 2.1m minimum.
Area of Doors, Windows and Ventilators: Generally the area of doors and windows shall be more than 1/7th of the floor area of rooms of a residential buildings.
Stair Case: Stair Case max. area shall be 12m2. The pitch shall be 30° to 45°. Each flight shall min. 3 steps and max. 12 steps. Minimum width of stair shall be 900 mm.
Lift: It should be provided in buildings having more than three floors excluding ground floor.
Sock Pit and Septic Tank: These shall be provided for each building where there is no provision of sewer at present.
Height of Compound Wall: The maximum height of compound wall on road side shall not be more than 1.5 m and on other side it should be 1.8 m.
Open Space: The open space shall be 1.8 m (min) and 3 m (max) for either side when the height of building is less than 10 m.
Distance from the Building line of the street: Minimum 3 m in any case.
Factors Affecting Building Planning
Arrangements of the doors and windows to meet the requirements of the inhabitants.
Privacy of the buildings from neighboring buildings and also within the buildings froom one room to other.
Arrangements of rooms like kitchen should be near to dinning room and away from living rooms.
Good aesthetic view of the Building from outside.
Maximum space should be utilized in a square shape.
All the room should be well furnished and designed.
Sufficient Sanitation of the building keeping in view while it’s planning.
The use must be flexible in order to use the rooms for any purposes according to the inhabitant requirements.
Free circulation should provide to the inhabitants from one room to another.
Future Expansion of the building keep in mind while it’s planning.
The building should be stable in any kind of forces apply on it.
The proposed building should provide comfort and convenience.
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