Primavera is the Enterprise Project Portfolio Management (EPPM) Software. It can be use for any type of project like Construction Project, other Business Projects etc. It is generally used for Project Management, Project Scheduling, Risk Analysis, Resource Management, Cost Analysis, Opportunity Management. The basic function of this software is to run the project smoothly without any delay due to extreme situation. It use Critical Path Method (CPM) in which the Total Float (Slack) is zero. You can read blog & watch Video about CPM vs PERT by click HERE.
Primavera was launched in 1983 by Primavera System Inc, and then after gain too much popularity in Project Management field in different organizations that it generate other Versions like Primavera P3 and SureTrak. In 2008 Primavera was acquired by Oracle Corporation. In 2010 Oracle ceased the sale of P3 and suretrak and only after that Primavera P6 is used for almost all types of Project.
Let’s Quick Overview of Primavera Interface and General features discussed in the video attached here:
This is one of the essential Documents while working in any construction Project. DPR actually shows the how your project are going on. It tells the progress of your construction work and other details like activities involve on each day, machinery involved or not, how many manpowers are there etc. You can add site pictures to visualize it in a better way or may be as simple document. You can prepare this document in MS Excel, MS Word, MS Power Point or using any other related tools. So here I have attached Sample format of DPR, also watch the video.
Bar-Bending Schedule (BBS) is the detail about cutting of rebars and quantity of rebars in a RCC Building,Bridges or any other RCC Construction project. It is clearly shows the cut length of rebars for each elements e.g footing, beams, column, slabs etc. This document is very helpful for steel fixers to follow the cutting of rebars for each elements. Everything is mention in a systematic tabular order e.g No. of Bar, Bar C/C Spacing, Size of bars, length of Bars, Weight of Bars. I have attached the sample of BBS format ate the End.
Watch the Videos below to know about the basics of this Document.
After reading this blog, you will be able to identify and can execute different types of support in real structure in construction site.
During Engineering you have shown just the idealized form of supports but when you go to construction site you cannot identify and execute different type support in real structures. So in this article your confusion will be vanished. Here we have discussed the most important three (3) types of supports normally used and cause confusion.
(1) Fixed Support
Fixed support mean that it can resist and restrain all the possible movement (vertical, horizontal & bending moment) through the joint/support and the stresses generate in beam due to any type of loading can transfer from beam to column safely. Now we discuss fixed support in Reinforced Cement Concrete Structures (RCC) and Steel Structures:
(a) Fixed Support in RCC Structures
In RCC structure first column concrete is done upto beam bottom level and then after fixing the reinforcements of beam and slab with the column projected rebars then concrete it monolithically so that the member can act as a fixed unit. To identify that the support is fixed or hinged/pin in RCC beam-column joint or the column jointed with foundation, you must check the rebar detail in drawing and on site that if proper development length(Ld) is provided then and the desired ratio of concrete is followed at the site then the support will be consider is fixed. Because the reinforcement at the support will tell you about whether the support is fixed or hinged/pin. The proper development length (Ld) and required concrete grade will achieve sufficient bond/anchorage at that at that joint to resist all the stresses. This type of support is mainly designed to resist bending moment along with the other stresses. You can see the fixed support in the figure below:
(b) Fixed Support in Steel Structures
The phenomena of fixed support that it will resist the possible movements will be same as in the RCC structures. The Steel Beam-Column connections or column-footing connections will be considered as fixed if the bolts or welds around the joint (around the flange and web) are fixed/applied throughout along with gusset plates at that joint/support. If the bolts or welds are fixed/applied only at the web section then it will consider as a hinged/pinned support because it will not resist all the movements (vertical, horizontal or bending moment) except the few one. This type of support is mainly designed to resist bending moment along with the other stresses. Through this type of bolting/welding you provided sufficient anchorage to resist all the stresses. The steel has to resist all the tension not concrete. You can see the Fixed Support in Steel Structure in figure/image below:
(2) Hinge/Pin Support
In this type of support only the horizontal and vertical movements are restrained but cannot resist bending moment. This type of support are not designed for taking any bending moments but just take the axial stresses (axial compression and axial tension). That’s why this type of support is mainly provided only in trusses. But if the bending is not the failure criteria of any member or if the bending moment is not generate sufficiently in any support that it can fail then we provide it in RCC and Steel Frames also:
(a) Hinge/Pin Support in RCC-Bricks Structures
You may have seen that in residential buildings or low storey buildings in which the load bearing component is brick walls then the beams and columns provided there by the unefficient contractor at some areas or in the whole structures is which may be not needed at all and also the structure is not properly designed by the structural engineer. If you look upon the reinforcement at beam-column joints or column-footing joints then you will find that they are not provided any development length or may be not sufficient to developed the required bond/anchorage at the joint. Because the tension is resisted by the steel not concrete. The concrete is also of very low Grade, so that support will not be considered as fixed but it will be a Hinge/Pin Support. But the loads are mainly taking by brick masonry walls that’s why the structure is stable. But you cannot allow this type of supports in RCC frame structures where the load bearing element is beam-column. You can see in given figure:
(b) Hinge/Pin Support Steel Structures
As we have discussed earlier that This type of support are not designed for taking any bending moments but just take the axial stresses (axial compression and axial tension). That’s why this type of support is mainly provided and designed for trusses. But it can be provide in Steel frames Beam-Column and Column-Footing joints when the bending is not the failure criteria. In this type of beam-column joints or column-footing joints the bolts/welds provided only at the web section or flange section of that element which is sufficient to resist the axial stresses. You can see in given figure below:
(2) Roller Support
Roller support can resist only vertical forces. So it is provided only when there is only axially compressive forces are there. You have seen the simply supported beams/girders may be of Steel or RC. The idealized form of simply supported beam is one side is hinge and the other is roller (see image). We consider it because at the hinge/pin side of beam resist horizontal forces because lateral movement are not generate at the element just because of hinge/pin and the other side is roller because due to temperature changes and heavy loads there may be little lateral bit forces occur which causes expansion and bending. If we consider both side is hinged then the temperature stresses in element will cause beam to crack and if we consider both side is roller than little component of lateral force can cause beam/girder to move horizontally which will be unstable. So when the beam which may be RCC or Steel which is lies just on both side support may be brick wall or RCC column but not casted monolithically then that will be an example of simply supported in which one side is roller and the other is hinge/pin support. You can see the roller support both in Steel and RCC structure given below:
Watch the short video given below under these discussion Topics:
Liquefaction refers to a phenomenon where saturated, loose, cohesionless soils lose strength due to earthquake ground motion or other sudden change in stress condition, in which material that is ordinarily a solid behaves like a liquid.
When soil becomes saturated with water, it enters a state known as liquefaction where it stops acting like a solid and starts behaving like a liquid.
Factors Affecting the Liquefaction of Soil
Fundamental factors that influence liquefaction susceptibility of saturated sands are considered, from the background of comprehensive experimental evidence from test results on reconstituted specimens. It is shown that at identical initial void ratio-effective stress state, undrained (constant volume) behaviour is profoundly affected by the fabric that ensues upon sample reconstitution. Water pluviation simulates in-situ behaviour closely. Very loose moist tamped states are unlikely to be accessible to in-situ sands. The susceptibility to liquefaction, both static and cyclic, depends not only on the initial state variables, but is also strongly affected by the effective stress path during undrained shear. On post cyclic static loading, the virgin strain softening sand is strain softening no more, but deforms with a continually increasing stiffness if the cyclic loading terminates with a residual zero effective stress. Very small expansive volumetric strains due to pore pressure gradients during short duration loading, or after its cessation could transform a sand into a strain softening type, which otherwise would be dilative if completely undrained.
How to Avoid Liquefaction?
If a structure is new construction, you should check liquefaction susceptibility before you build. However, if a structure already exists, there are measures you can take to reduce the damage caused by earthquake-related liquefaction. Structures can be retrofitted and reinforced to reduce the impact of violent shaking, and the soil under and around them can also be densified, solidified, reinforced, drained and/or dewatered.
All buildings in earthquake-prone areas can be strengthened through bracing, reinforcing masonry, sheer plating (such as adding plates of plywood to stud walls), and bolting walls to foundations. In the interior, it’s always a good idea to strap water heaters to the wall and secure heavy objects like bookshelves and mirrors to prevent them from falling when the building shakes.
Foundation are structural elements, which transfer loads to the soil from columns, walls or lateral loads from earth retaining structures.
A structure essentially consists of two parts, namely the super structure which is above the plinth level and the substructure which is below the plinth level. Substructure is otherwise known as the foundation and this forms the base for any structure. Generally about 30% of the total construction cost is spent on the foundation.The soil on which the foundation rests is called the “foundation soil”.Shallow FootingDeep Foundation
Types of Foundation
The two main types of foundation are :
Shallow Foundation are usually located no more than 6 ft below the lowest finished floor OR Depth (D) of foundation is less than or equal to its width (B). When the soil bearing capacity of soil upto low depth is sufficient to take the structure load then it is provided.
Types of Shallow foundation
Isolated spread footing
Cantilever or strap footings
Raft or Mat foundation
Use of Shallow Foundation
A shallow foundation system generally used when
The soil close the ground surface has sufficient bearing capacity
Underlying weaker strata do not result in undue settlement. The shallow foundations are commonly used most economical foundation systems.
The shallow foundations may not be economical or even possible when the soil bearing capacity near the surface is too low. In those cases deep foundations are used to transfer loads to a stronger layer, which may be located at a significant depth below the ground surface. The load is transferred through skin friction and end bearing.Deep Foundation
Types of Deep foundation
Types of Pile foundation :
Load bearing pile
Objectives of a foundation
To distribute the total load coming on the structure on a larger area.
To support the structures.
To give enough stability to the structures against various disturbing
forces, such as wind and rain.
To prepare a level surface for concreting and masonry work.
Civil Engineering is a branch of Engineering deals with Plan, Analyze, Design, Build & Maintain facilities i.e Bridges, Buildings, Dams, Culverts, Irrigation Channels and Steel Structures etc for the people.
The civil engineer has the challenge to satisfy the vital needs of society by designing, building, managing and maintaining complex infrastructure projects with a global approach, taking into account socio-economical and environmental interactions. He is a generalist with high competences in various fields such as structures, hydraulic schemes and energy, geotechnics and tunnelling, transportation infrastructures and systems, management, legal and economical aspects as well as environmental issues. Civil engineers work in multidisciplinary and very often multicultural teams.
Civil engineering will give the students the required knowledge to face a big challenge: create the necessary infrastructures for economic prosperity, hence guaranteeing the whole population an adequate standard of living. High priority is given to a transdisciplinary teaching in the ENAC School by bringing together civil engineers, architects and environmental engineers, through the program “Design and build together”. An EPFL Master of Science in Civil Engineering will lead the young graduate to a stimulating career in an engineering consulting firm, a construction company or a government agency, or allow him/her to open his/her own civil engineering consulting firm.