This is one of the essential Documents while working in any construction Project. DPR actually shows the how your project are going on. It tells the progress of your construction work and other details like activities involve on each day, machinery involved or not, how many manpowers are there etc. You can add site pictures to visualize it in a better way or may be as simple document. You can prepare this document in MS Excel, MS Word, MS Power Point or using any other related tools. So here I have attached Sample format of DPR, also watch the video.
Bar-Bending Schedule (BBS) is the detail about cutting of rebars and quantity of rebars in a RCC Building,Bridges or any other RCC Construction project. It is clearly shows the cut length of rebars for each elements e.g footing, beams, column, slabs etc. This document is very helpful for steel fixers to follow the cutting of rebars for each elements. Everything is mention in a systematic tabular order e.g No. of Bar, Bar C/C Spacing, Size of bars, length of Bars, Weight of Bars. I have attached the sample of BBS format ate the End.
Watch the Videos below to know about the basics of this Document.
This is most effective book for students and professionals who pursue study and practices in Structural Engineering. The theory and Problems links with practical approaches and real engineering judgements.
In this Blog I have discussed briefly the Building Code of pakistan (BCP) and in detail you can understand it when you study and practice it. You can download the updated version by just click on the link given at the end.
As Pakistan lies on a seismic junction of three major tectonic plates of the world including Eurasian, Indian and Arabian. The Building Code of pakistan-Seismic Provision-2007 (BCP-SP-07) was compiled Under PEC Governing Body in collaboration with National Engineering service Pakistan (NESPAK), Industry Practitioners, Ministry of science & Technology, Ministry of housing & Society and some other organizations along with assistance provided by the International Code Code (ICC) and American Concrete Institute (ACI). The need of that code was become crucial need due the safety was compromised in building designing and construction after the severe earthquake occurs in October, 2005 which causes about 87,000 casualties and 780,000 Building collapsed and 2.5 million people were homeless along with economic loss about PkR 441 Billion (US $2.3 billion)
Revised/Updated Code (BCP-2021)
The Building Code is abide to revise after every five years or earlier when needed but BCP-SP-07 was not revised since long time and now after long research shown that the Earthquake magnitude is enhanced in the last decade which becomes the necessity to revised the code.
As the previous Code (BCP-Sp-07) was taken from UBC-97. Now the UBC-97 is almost obsolete in all developed Nations. The updated version (BCP-2021) is based on International Building Code (IBC-2021) which the International Building Code (ICC) grant its permission under International Copyright Act.
With this upgradation of code the Performance Based Design (PBD) Philosophy which is advanced design Philosophy which employ the Non-Linear dynamic Analysis or Time history Analysis can also be used. Which now many country used this method in order to design the structure on the basis of the real response to the Earthquake forces rather than conventional code based Method.
The new code is based on IBC-2021, ASCE 41-17, ASCE 7-16 and ACI 14-19 and some other by give a proper citation of each Code.
In Civil Engineering it may be on Construction Site while Executing any project or doing calculation in studies or in structural engineering while designing a structures or it may be in any field, it becomes problem when you are not familiar with the basics units. So In this short blog you will be able to convert any units to other unit without memorizing each one. If you know about the most basics unit then you can convert and manipulate bigger units and calculation by just using these concepts.
One thing to remember is if you convert a bigger unit to Smaller one the you have to Multiply with equivalent value and from smaller to bigger one then divide the equivalent value. The following example will clear your concepts.
(1) Linear or One Dimensional (1D) Unit
Length, Distance, Displacement
1st you should know about one linear or dimensional units and these are the basics to convert to any others units if 2D (Area) & 3D(Volume) e.g foot, meters and inches ect if you don’t know about these basics then you can learn it by using a measuring tape (inchi tap). These are basics then you can convert bigger linear units e.g Km, miles etc. You can see here the feets, inches and soot (soother) on the upper part and meters, cm and mm on the lower part horizontally.
(2) Two Dimensional(2D) Units
Area, surface area, cross-sectional area
So Area is a 2 Dimensional quantity and you can find these units by just squaring of the one dimensional or linear units e.g taking square of m you will got m2 and the same way all other units. It can convert from MKS (meter, kilogram,second) to FPS (Foot,pound Second).
(a)Example: Convert=>5m2 to ft3 => 20m2 = 20 (1*3.28)2 =20*10.76 ft2= 215.2ft2(here using only linear units and converted from bigger to smaller that’s why multiplied)
(b)Example: Convert=>50ft2 => m2 = 50* (1/3.28)2 =50*0.0929 ft2= 4.645m2 (here using only linear units and converted from smaller to bigger units that’s why divide)
(3) Three Dimensional (3D)
Volume is a Three Dimensional Unit and you received that unit by taking cube of 1d units e.g if you take cube of ft then it will become ft3 which is 3d unit. It can be converted any 3d units of MKS(meter, kilogram, second) to FPS(foot,pound, second) with the help of linear units without memorize the exact relation between them.
(b)Example: Convert=> 5m3 to ft3 => 5m3 = 5 (1*3.28)3 =5*35.3 ft3=176.4ft3 (here using only linear units and converted from bigger to smaller that’s why multiplied )
(b)Example: Convert=>40ft3 => m3 = 40* (1/3.28)2 =40*0.028 ft3= 1.12m2 (here using only linear units and converted from smaller to bigger units that’s why divide)
Force,weight and load are same terms used in Civil Engineering and general units used for that is Newton(N), Kg, Pound (lb), KN, Kip(kilo-pound).
If you know about the most basics one e.g 1 Kg=10 N, 1 kg= 2.205 lb then you can convert any units with the help of these tow.
10 kg=> N=> 10 kg= 10 *10 N = 100 N (multiplied; Bigger=>Smaller)
200 lb=>KN=> suppose here we don’t know about the lb and KN relation then 1st we will convert lb to know unit that we know. So taking help from “1 kg = 10 N” & “1 kg= 2.205 lb” , 1 lb= (1/2.205) kg= 0.4535 kg , now convert the 0.4535kg into N ; 0.4535*10 N= 4.535N Now convert it to KN(divide by 1000); 0.004535 KN. So 1 lb=0.004535 KN. Now 200 lb= 200 *0.004535 KN = 0.91 KN.
The same way you can convert things without any single relations known.
(5) Stresses (Force/Area) and Densities (Force/Volume) and Moment/Torque (Force *Distance0
So if you have learnt about how to convert forces and 1d(length), 2D(area), 3d(Volume) units then you can easily convert the units of stresses, Densities and Moments/ torques etc.
So we will solve one example for stresses
Examples: Convert=> 1Mpa to Psi
Mpa= N/mm2 and Psi= lb/in2 ; 1 N/mm2 ; So suppose here I don’t know about lb and N relation then taking help of know relations e.g 1 kg = 10 N=> 1 N= 0.1 Kg now replace the kg by pound (lb) because we know that relation; 1 N= 0.1 ( 2.205 lb)=> 1N= 0.2205 lb and the same way convert mm2 to in2 => suppose we don’t know the relations between mm to in then; 1mm2= (1/1000)2 = 1o-6 m2; converted into meters because we know the relation between meter to ft; 10-6 (3.28)2 ft2 = 0.00001076 ft2 now convert that feets to inches; 0.00001076*(12)2 in2= 0.001549 in2 .
Now put the values of 1 N= 0.2205 lb and 1mm2= 0.001549 ; 1 N/mm2(MPa)= 0.2205 lb/0.001549 in2 (Psi)=> 1 N/mm2=143 Psi but exactly it is equal to 145 Psi as I put values approximately.
so from the above example you may have cleared that only know the basics concepts you can derive any units.
Watch the Video given below I have discussed it briefly;
“Soil Mechanics is the application of laws of mechanics to the Engineering Problems deals with soils e.g sediments or other unconsolidated accumulation of soil particles produce by the mechanical & chemical disintegration of rocks”
Since Soil is generally a three phase material consists of Soil Solids, Water & Air. So that’s why it exhibits different properties and behave differently under same load conditions. So the following is some of the basics properties and parameters that involves while studying Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering.
Va=Volume of Air
V=Total Volume of soil mass
Vw=Volume of Water
Vs=Volume of Solids
Vv=Volume of voids
W=Weight of Soil Mass
Ww=Weight of Water content
Ws=Weight of Solids
Weight of Soil Mass=W=Ws+Ww,(Air weight neglected)
Volume of Voids=Vv=Va+Vw
Wsat=Weight of fully Saturated Soil
(Ws)sub=Submerged Weight or Buoyant weight of soil below water surface or under ground water table.
Index Properties of Soil
Water Content(W)=Ww / Ws
Void Ratio(e)=Vv / Vs
Porosity (n )=Vv / V
Degree of Saturation(Sr)=Vw / Vv
Air Content(ac)=Va / Vv
Percentage of Air Void( a)=Va / V
Definition: It is the Weight of any material per unit Volume of that material and Units of measurement is SI is Kg/m3 or g/cm3 .
Bulk Density or Bulk Unit Weight of Soil mass (r)=W / V
Dry Density or Dry Unit Weight of Soil(rd)=Ws / V
Desity of Soilds (rs)=Ws / Vs
Saturated Density of Soil Mass(rsat)=Wsat / V
Submerged Density of Soil Mass(rsub)=(Ws)sub / V
Definition: It is the ratio of density of any material to the density of water and since it is the ratio, so this is the unitless quantity .
Specific gravity of Soil Solids(G)=rs / rw
Bulk or mass Specific gravity of Soil Solids(Gm)=r / rw
Watch the Video, these parameters have been discussed briefly.
Program Evaluation & Review Technique (PERT) is a method used in Project Management to identify all the activities involved in any project and to find the unpredictable activities that upon the project is dependent and probabilistically define the time scale by the project to finish without any delayed not concern about the project cost.
Critical Path Method (CPM) is also a Project Management technique to identify all the activities involved while preparing a schedule, in any project and based upon this method critical activities can be identify upon which whole project is dependent. The time scale and cost both has to be considered, so that project can finish with expected date and with the allocated budget.
PERT is used for Non-Repetitive Projects e.g Research Projects
CPM is used for Repetitive Projects e.g Construction Projects, Organizational project management etc
PERT is probabilistic (time and cost cannot prospect in advance)
CPM is deterministic (time and cost can be prospect in advance)
PERT manages unpredictable activities
CPM manages predictable activities
PERT is event oriented
CPM is activity oriented
PERT uses three type of time to end of project that is Optimistic time, most likely time & pessimistic time
CPM considered and focus only on time and cost
PERT Vs CPM
This is the most basics differences between PERT & CPM. Watch the Video below you will make understand about how to find the Critical Path in any Project and about Early Start (ES), Early Finish (EF), Late Start(LS) & Late Finish (LF) terminologies with Example.
Definition:“Its a low height Dam constructed across the river to increase the water level at upper stream and to control the discharge or flow of water into the ponds, irrigation land, reservoirs or to flood control, is called a weir”
Definition:“It is a type of low-head Dam over a river which stored water behind it at upper-stream to increase water level and consists of number of gates that regulate water to supply to irrigation land, for power generation (mechanical power to electrical), to divert water, to control flood, to maintain discharge, is called barrages.”
Basic Difference between Weirs & barrage
Barrage is comparatively a big structure compared to weir.
Barrage has regulators in the form of sluice gates which control flow of water while weirs doesn’t have any gates.
Barrages control discharge and increase level of water by means of sluice gates (regulators) while Weirs control water flow and increase level only by its fixed super-structures (normally Concretes + Stone Masonry) upto its fixed height.
Barrages can produce power generation by its tidal energy while weirs normally not do that.