American Concrete Institute (ACI) has published the Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete which is the guide for Reinforced concrete structure while designing the structure. It provides the background of material and rationale for the code provision.
ACI has revised the guide after every 3 years. ACI 318-19 is the latest version. Originally it is made in US but many other countries has followed this document. It has two parts, both are incorporated in this document:
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
Commentary on Building Code Requirements on Structural Concrete
Download this Document only for Study purpose and practical help.
In this Blog I have discussed briefly the Building Code of pakistan (BCP) and in detail you can understand it when you study and practice it. You can download the updated version by just click on the link given at the end.
As Pakistan lies on a seismic junction of three major tectonic plates of the world including Eurasian, Indian and Arabian. The Building Code of pakistan-Seismic Provision-2007 (BCP-SP-07) was compiled Under PEC Governing Body in collaboration with National Engineering service Pakistan (NESPAK), Industry Practitioners, Ministry of science & Technology, Ministry of housing & Society and some other organizations along with assistance provided by the International Code Code (ICC) and American Concrete Institute (ACI). The need of that code was become crucial need due the safety was compromised in building designing and construction after the severe earthquake occurs in October, 2005 which causes about 87,000 casualties and 780,000 Building collapsed and 2.5 million people were homeless along with economic loss about PkR 441 Billion (US $2.3 billion)
Revised/Updated Code (BCP-2021)
The Building Code is abide to revise after every five years or earlier when needed but BCP-SP-07 was not revised since long time and now after long research shown that the Earthquake magnitude is enhanced in the last decade which becomes the necessity to revised the code.
As the previous Code (BCP-Sp-07) was taken from UBC-97. Now the UBC-97 is almost obsolete in all developed Nations. The updated version (BCP-2021) is based on International Building Code (IBC-2021) which the International Building Code (ICC) grant its permission under International Copyright Act.
With this upgradation of code the Performance Based Design (PBD) Philosophy which is advanced design Philosophy which employ the Non-Linear dynamic Analysis or Time history Analysis can also be used. Which now many country used this method in order to design the structure on the basis of the real response to the Earthquake forces rather than conventional code based Method.
The new code is based on IBC-2021, ASCE 41-17, ASCE 7-16 and ACI 14-19 and some other by give a proper citation of each Code.
Following are some of the major International Building Codes have been discussed.
(1) General Building Codes
Each cover all aspects of building designing and construction. These codes use by structural designers to make safe and economical their structure while follow the criteria, data required the structural designing and bylaws of the countries they want to design and construct that structure. The following three (3) Codes are the International codes generally follows in different countries in the world for Civil Engineering Structure Designing. Almost every countries has its own building codes which is derived and modified these International Codes according to their countries geography, earthquakes and some other factor and parameters. These Codes specify the requirements of the governmental bodies for minimum design loads on structures and mininmum standards for construction.
(a) Uniform Building Code (UBC-97)
This is an international building code last updated in 1997 that’s why it is called UBC-97. This code is generally applied in USA and Asian Countries. It can be use anywhere in the world if it meets the criteria, data required by the designer and comply with the national and local governments bylaws. So every countries derived and modified these International Codes according to their countries geography, earthquakes and some other factor and parameters. They cannot apply these codes blindly.
(b)International Building Code (IBC-2000)
This code was established in 2000, that’s why it is called IBC-2000. This code is also applicable in different countries throughout the world if it meet the criteria, data required and the local government acceptance. So every countries derived and modified these International Codes according to their countries geography, earthquakes and some other factors and parameters. They cannot apply these codes blindly.
This is an international building code. It is normally applicable in European countries, but it can also be apply in any countries if it meet the criteria, data required and the local government acceptance. So every countries derived and modified these International Codes according to their countries geography, earthquakes and some other factors and parameters. They cannot apply these codes blindly.
Almost every country has its own building codes which is derived and modified these International Codes according to their country geography, earthquakes and some other factors and parameters. They cannot apply these codes blindly. So these derived and modified codes for the specific countries is called National Codes. I want to mention some examples of National Codes.
(a) Building Code of Pakistan (BCP)
BCP code is for Pakistan only and it is derived from UBC-97 because the data and information required for Pakistani Structure Designer was available in UBC-97. Especially the date required regarding earthquakes, so first of all Pakistan publish their Code in 2007 which is called “BCP-SP-07”. So they make little changes in the UBC-97 and publish their own code called BCP.
(B) Indian Standards Code (IS)
IS is the Indian codes for constructions and it is normally applicable in India only unless you make it checked all the criteria to use in any other countries. IS is further divided in many codes normally used for Structural Reinforced Concrete is IS-456-2000, National Building Code (NBC), Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS).
(2) Design Codes or Building Codes for Specific Materials
These codes the cover design and Construction of structures using specific materials. These are the general guideline codes for specific materials. Design codes provides detailed technical standards and are used to established the actual structure design. The ultimate responsibility lies on Structural Engineer that how to apply these standards and his/her efficiency to Design any structure. These Codes include but not limited to:
ACI: American Concrete Institute (Used for RCC structural materials, elements and structures all over the world for design of specific materials guidelines)
AISC: American Institute of Steel Construction ( Manual for Steel Construction structures uses all over the world for general design guidelines)
AASHTO: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (Used for Road designing and Construction all over the world but it should comply with country geography and other parameters).
AREA: American Railway Engineering Association (Manual for Railway Engineering).
AFPA: American Forest and Paper Association ( National Design Association for Wood Construction).
ASTM: American Society for Testing Materials ( general guideline and standards procedures for Testing materials use during Construction)