## Structural Analysis Book

Author : Russel Charles Hibbeler

This is most effective book for students and professionals who pursue study and practices in Structural Engineering. The theory and Problems links with practical approaches and real engineering judgements.

Use it for study and Practices only.

## ASCE 7-22

American Society for Civil Engineer (ASCE) has published the latest version (ASCE 7-22) for Minimum Design Load and Associated Criteria for Building and Other Structure describes the means for determining design loads including dead, live, soil, flood, tsunami, snow, rain, atmospheric ice, seismic, and wind loads and their combinations for general structural design.
Structural engineers, architects, and building code officials will find the structural load requirements essential to their practice.

## Structural Analysis

It is a method or tool by which we find out how a structure or a member of a structure behaves when subjected to certain loads.

In other words finding out internal forces (axial force, shear force, moment), stress, strain, deflection etc in a structure under applied load conditions.

Whenever design any structure first of all we Analyze the structure either manually or through software or may be both. So there is number of methods of Structural Analysis. Mainly these methods are used to analyze indeterminate structures ( no. of reactions more than equilibrium equations) In this article we will discuss just the name of methods.

## Methods of Analysis

There are two main Methods which have further divided into different methods. There is some limitations while analysing any structure that’s why you have to chose the most appropriate method while analysing any structure.

1. Exact Methods
2. Approximate Methods

## (1) Exact Methods

It is the most accurate methods while analyzing any indeterminate structures. It is also called accurate method. In this method the material property called Modulus of Elasticity (E) and geometric property called Area Moment of Inertia (I) of the materials are required.

This method is further subdivided into two methods. We will discuss each methods in detail in the next article.

1. Force Methods
2. Displacement Methods
##### 1. Force Methods
• Three Moment Theorem
• Flexibility Matrix
• Strain Energy Method
• Methods of Consistent deformation
• Column Analogy
• Minimum Potential Energy Method
• Castigliano’s Method etc
##### 2. Displacement Methods
• Moment Distribution Method
• Stiffness Matrix Method
• Slope Deflection Method
• Kani’s Method etc

## (2) Approximate Methods

In this method the material property called Modulus of Elasticity (E) and geometric property called Moment of Inertia (I) of the materials are not required. In this method indeterminate structures first convert to determinate structures and then analysed using equation of equilibrium.

The following three methods normally used in analysing.

1. Portal Frame Method
2. Factor Method
3. Cantilever method